# CS 446/646 Principles of Computer Operating Systems

## Due on Monday, April 6 at 12:00 pm

Solve the following problems from the text book (Silberschatz, 8th edition):

Chapter 6:

16:Describe how the Swap() instruction can be used to provide mutual exclusion that satisfies the bounded-waiting requirement.

36: What are the implications of assigning a new timestamp to a transaction that is rolled back? How does the system process transactions that were issued after the rolled-back transaction but that have timestamps smaller than the new timestamp of the rolled-back transaction?

37: Assume that a finite number of resources of a single resource type must be managed. Processes may ask for a number of these resources and —once finished—will return them. As an example, many commercial software packages provide a given number of licenses, indicating the number of applications that may run concurrently.When the application is started, the license count is decremented. When the application is terminated, the license count is incremented. If all licenses are in use, requests to start the application are denied. Such requestswill be granted only when an existing license holder terminates the application and a license is returned.

The following program segment is used to manage a finite number of instances of an available resource. The maximum number of resources and the number of available resources are declared as follows:

```#define MAX RESOURCES 5
int available resources = MAX RESOURCES;
```

When a process wishes to obtain a number of resources, it invokes the decrease count() function:

```/* decrease available resources by count resources */
/* return 0 if sufficient resources available, */
/* otherwise return -1 */
int decrease count(int count) {
if (available resources \lt count)
return -1;
else {
available resources -= count;
return 0;
}
}
```

When a process wants to return a number of resources, it calls the decrease count() function:

```/* increase available resources by count */
int increase count(int count) {
available resources += count;
return 0;
}
```

The preceding program segment produces a race condition. Do the following:

a. Identify the data involved in the race condition.

b. Identify the location (or locations) in the code where the race condition occurs.

c. Using a semaphore, fix the race condition.

Chapter 7:

10: Consider the traffic deadlock depicted in Figure 7.9.

a. Show that the four necessary conditions for deadlock indeed hold in this example.

b. State a simple rule for avoiding deadlocks in this system.

16: Consider a system consisting of m resources of the same type, being shared by n processes. Resources can be requested and released by processes only one at a time. Show that the system is deadlock free if the following two conditions hold:

a. The maximum need of each process is between 1 and m resources

b. The sum of all maximum needs is less than m + n

20: Consider the following snapshot of a system:

Answer the following questions using the banker’s algorithm:

a. What is the content of the matrix Need?

b. Is the system in a safe state?

c. If a request from process P1 arrives for (0,4,2,0), can the request be granted immediately?

What to turn in: A softcopy of your solutions (could be a scanned version of the hard copy of the solutions) to be uploaded to WebCT.