So far we have explained the ins and outs of the global map. Major modes customize Emacs by providing their own key bindings in local keymaps. For example, C mode overrides TAB to make it indent the current line for C code. Portions of text in the buffer can specify their own keymaps to substitute for the keymap of the buffer's major mode.
Minor modes can also have local keymaps. Whenever a minor mode is in effect, the definitions in its keymap override both the major mode's local keymap and the global keymap.
The local keymaps for Lisp mode, C mode, and several other major modes
always exist even when not in use. These are kept in variables named
c-mode-map, and so on. For major modes
less often used, the local keymap is normally constructed only when the
mode is used for the first time in a session. This is to save space.
If you wish to change one of these keymaps, you must use the major
mode's mode hook---see below.
All minor mode keymaps are created in advance. There is no way to defer their creation until the first time the minor mode is enabled.
A local keymap can locally redefine a key as a prefix key by defining it as a prefix keymap. If the key is also defined globally as a prefix, then its local and global definitions (both keymaps) effectively combine: both of them are used to look up the event that follows the prefix key. Thus, if the mode's local keymap defines C-c as another keymap, and that keymap defines C-z as a command, this provides a local meaning for C-c C-z. This does not affect other sequences that start with C-c; if those sequences don't have their own local bindings, their global bindings remain in effect.
Another way to think of this is that Emacs handles a multi-event key sequence by looking in several keymaps, one by one, for a binding of the whole key sequence. First it checks the minor mode keymaps for minor modes that are enabled, then it checks the major mode's keymap, and then it checks the global keymap. This is not precisely how key lookup works, but it's good enough for understanding ordinary circumstances.
To change the local bindings of a major mode, you must change the mode's local keymap. Normally you must wait until the first time the mode is used, because most major modes don't create their keymaps until then. If you want to specify something in your `~/.emacs' file to change a major mode's bindings, you must use the mode's mode hook to delay the change until the mode is first used.
For example, the command
texinfo-mode to select Texinfo mode
runs the hook
texinfo-mode-hook. Here's how you can use the hook
to add local bindings (not very useful, we admit) for C-c n and
C-c p in Texinfo mode:
(add-hook 'texinfo-mode-hook '(lambda () (define-key texinfo-mode-map "\C-cp" 'backward-paragraph) (define-key texinfo-mode-map "\C-cn" 'forward-paragraph) ))
See section Hooks.